GMAIL Bas!c Shell Comm@nds for Linux Newbies | Security Learner's Blog

Monday, 9 September 2013

Bas!c Shell Comm@nds for Linux Newbies

The basic commands are the ones that you have to know in order to trot around on Linux. These can further be divided into a few sub sections.

Directory Commands
pwd: Used to print a working directory
mkdir: Used to make directories
cd: It stands for ‘Change Directory’
rmdir: For removing a directory.

File Commands

ls: This lists the contents of a directory.
rm: This removes files from a directory.
cp: It copies files from a source directory to the target directory.
mv: It moves the file to a target.
cat: This command reads one or more files and then prints them to the standard output.
cmp: This command compares two files byte by byte.
wc: This command prints the number of bytes, new lines and words in a file.
du: This command gives an estimation of the disk usage by each file and recursively for directories.
find: This command searches for a file in the directory.
grep: Print the lines that match a particular pattern.
sort: Sort the lines in text files.


‘Vim’ is an advanced and more useful text editor than the ‘Vi’ editor. There are also other text editors such as nano, vi, kate, KDE and gedit.

For example, vim filename

User Account

While working on the ‘root’ account, one needs to be very careful. Managing user accounts and groups is one of the most important parts of a system administrator’s task.

When as an admin, you’re given a particular scenario, you must know how to manage the various accounts that are involved. Here are some commands that help,

useradd: Creating a user account. This command can be executed only by administrators.
passwd: Changing password for a user. The user will be asked for the old password, but administrators can bypass this step.
usermod: This command is used to modify a user account.
userdel: This command is used for deleting an user account and files related to it.
groupadd: Creating a new group.
groupdel: This one deletes a group and entries referring to it.
groupmod: This command is used to modify a group.
chown: Use this when you want to change the owner of a file.
chgrp: Changing the ownership of a group.

Network Commands

It is important to know the commands for checking IP address, getting DNS and for downloading files from the internet.

wget: This is a non-interactive network downloader. When a download fails due to network problems, this keeps retying until the entire file has been downloaded.
ping: This one sends an ICMP echo request to all network hosts. The sender gets an ICMP packet if the host is responding.
hostname: This is used to set or show the host name for the system.
dnsdomainname: This is for showing the DND domain name of the system.
netstat: This command displays the status of different ports.
ifconfig: This command can be used to get the subnet mask and IP address of a network. Plus, you can use it to configure a particular network.

There are other commands that you need to know too, but this will get you started. Further categories are also made for Linux commands.


I am Fida Hussain,a computer student from Pakistan. Right from the day one I was introduced to computers,I had a passion for Hacking and Information security. So,I started this blog in 2012 to share my views and ideas with the world.


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